The composition of multiple Gaussian Processes as a Deep Gaussian Process (DGP) enables a deep probabilistic nonparametric approach to flexibly tackle complex machine learning problems with sound quantification of uncertainty. Existing inference approaches for DGP models have limited scalability and are notoriously cumbersome to construct. In this work, we introduce a novel formulation of DGPs based on random feature expansions that we train using stochastic variational inference. This yields a practical learning framework which significantly advances the state-of-the-art in inference for DGPs, and enables accurate quantification of uncertainty. We extensively showcase the scalability and performance of our proposal on several datasets with up to 8 million observations, and various DGP architectures with up to 30 hidden layers.
An python / TensorFlow implementation can be found here: https://github.com/mauriziofilippone/deep_gp_random_features
We investigate the capabilities and limitations of Gaussian process models by jointly exploring three complementary directions: (i) scalable and statistically efficient inference; (ii) flexible kernels; and (iii) objective functions for hyperparameter learning alternative to the marginal likelihood. Our approach outperforms all previously reported GP methods on the standard MNIST dataset; performs comparatively to previous kernel-based methods using the RECTANGLES-IMAGE dataset; and breaks the 1% error-rate barrier in GP models using the MNIST8M dataset, showing along the way the scalability of our method at unprecedented scale for GP models (8 million observations) in classification problems. Overall, our approach represents a significant breakthrough in kernel methods and GP models, bridging the gap between deep learning approaches and kernel machines.
and here is a recent presentation by one of the author: “Practical and Scalable Inference for Deep Gaussian Processes”
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